Dear <<First Name>>,
Welcome to the January 2019 Dalgarno Institute Fence Builder Newsletter.

“A person who uses drugs give up his or her authentic self.”
The Dalai Lama
Dalgarno Research Report (DRR): The Portugal Drug Policy Model – Not Right Fit for Australia
Dalgarno Research Report (DRR): Addiction Management
Drinking alcohol every day for a month: The six damaging effects it can have on your body.     
Liver Disease – Heart Issues – Weight Gain – Sexual Health – Kidneys – Pancreas
Drinking During Breastfeeding Linked to Later Cognitive Inhibitions in ChildrenBottom of Form
International Narcotics Control Board concludes its 123rd session with treaty compliance and health and well-being at the core of deliberations. INCD Press Release 16 November 2018
Complete Press Release>> UNIS/NAR/1367 


Australia: Key findings from the 2018 Drug Trends State interviews

Info graphs Illicit Drug Use

Ecstasy and Related Drugs Report

Consumption patterns and drug market perceptions
Current drug use
  • Ecstasy remained the main drug of choice (36%), although endorsement of cannabis increased (28% vs. 21% in 2016, p<0.01).
  • The substances most commonly used in the preceding six months were ecstasy (99%), alcohol (97%), cannabis (89%), and tobacco (87%).
  • Recent use of tobacco, MDMA crystal/rock, ecstasy capsules, ecstasy powder, ketamine, magic mushrooms, nitrous oxide, licit benzodiazepines, illicit pharmaceutical stimulants, licit ‘other’ opiates and unknown capsules increased significantly from 2016 to 2017, whilst past six month use of crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy pills significantly decreased.
  • Two-fifths (42%) of the sample reported weekly or more frequent use of any psychostimulant in the past month. One-third reported fortnightly use (36% vs. 37% in 2016), and one-fifth reported monthly use (18% vs. 19% in 2016).
  • One-third (33%) reported that they had binged on a stimulant drug (i.e. used continuously for 48 hours or more without sleep) on a median of two occasions in the past six months.

Anhedonia and its Significance in Substance Abuse

FENCE BUILDER – Summer Edition 10, Volume 2, Christmas 2018
Cultivating Crime – Colorado Cannabis Chaos

The CDC in the US, put out a serious warning on Cannabis by the Surgeon General over 30 years! Proving that what now passes for 'progress' - isn't?

Teens are trying marijuana before alcohol and tobacco
Teens used to try alcohol first, then tobacco, and then marijuana. Now, marijuana is increasingly the first “gateway” substance for adolescents, according to new research.

“As we’ve seen the dramatic declines in alcohol and tobacco, we haven’t seen dramatic declines in marijuana, so now every year it’s more and more likely that kids are starting their drug-use careers with marijuana,” says Keyes. She adds that rates of teen drinking and smoking started to fall — thanks largely to widespread public health campaigns — long before the recent wave of pro-marijuana lobbying.
Most likely, this trend will continue as marijuana becomes less stigmatized and more and more states vote to legalize the drug. Though teens aren’t supposed to smoke marijuana even in the states that have fully legalized it, “it’s not going out on a huge limb to suggest that marijuana is going to be more available at a lower cost to adolescents,” says Keyes. “If you make a substance more available at a lower cost and easier to access, you’re gonna see increases.” After all, it’s also illegal for kids to drink or smoke, but many easily find both alcohol and cigarettes in their own homes.
Comment: Education and Legislation work to shift culture better than ‘education’ alone. Our emerging generation are the first in 120 years to grow up with the strong and uncompromising message that ‘tobacco is bad, but marijuana is medicine!’… No surprise as to how that ‘education’ is leading the generation, as this research further validates! Dalgarno Institute

Could medical cannabis be the new THALIDOMIDE?
Pressure to loosen NHS guidelines on medical cannabis use is growing in the UK
  • The British Medical Journal warned that widespread use could lead to disaster 
  • The potential crisis was compared to the thalidomide scandal of the 50s and 60s
24 November 2018 
The drug has been linked to a host of serious birth defects, including at least six life-threatening deformities.
They include two congenital heart problems; a neurological condition called anencephaly, in which a child is born with a large portion of the brain missing, often dying within hours; and the birth defect gastroschisis, where the intestines develop outside the body.
‘Babies exposed to marijuana in utero are at increased risk of admission to neonatal intensive care units,’ says Torri Metz, a University of Utah professor who was among the Colorado study’s authors.
For complete story

How marijuana harms a developing baby’s brain
Three studies in rodents suggest prenatal exposure to the drug may pose risks for infants
This article was originally published by Scientific American.
One recent study revealed that in 2016 7 percent of pregnant women in California used marijuana, with rates as high as 22 percent among teenage mothers. In Colorado 69 percent of dispensaries recommended the drug to pregnant women to help with morning sickness.

Prenatal drug exposure can be harmful to unborn babies. Previous research has shown infants exposed to cannabis in the womb are 50 percent more likely to have a lower birth weight. Now three new studies presented Tuesday at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting here suggest prenatal cannabis exposure—at least in rodents—could have serious consequences for fetal brain development.
In one study researchers at Washington State University in Pullman showed rat pups born to mothers exposed to high amounts of cannabis vapor during pregnancy had trouble with cognitive flexibility. Twice a day the scientists filled the pregnant rats’ containers with marijuana vapor from an e-cigarette, elevating levels of the psychoactive chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in the rats’ blood to roughly the human equivalent of smoking a joint. After the pups grew up the researchers trained them on a task that measured their ability to think flexibly and learn new rules. The young rats first learned to follow a light cue to push one of two levers in order to receive a sugary treat. The next day, pushing only the left lever would deliver the reward, regardless of which side the light had been on.
The rats exposed to cannabis in utero learned the first rule (following the light cue) without a problem, but they took significantly longer to learn the new rule (pushing the left lever) than did rats not exposed to the drug. The cannabis-exposed rats also made many more mistakes on the second day.
In a similar study, scientists at Auburn University in Alabama found rats born to mothers that had been injected with a low, continuous dose of synthetic cannabis during pregnancy were significantly impaired on several different memory tasks involving mazes…“There was a gap in the acquisition of the memory and the consolidation of the memory.”
The young rats whose mothers were dosed with the drug also had abnormalities in the hippocampus, the brain’s primary memory center. Specifically, they had difficulty creating new connections between neurons—the basis for forming new memories. The researchers think the differences in the hippocampus stem from changes in levels of glutamate, the brain’s main excitatory neurochemical involved in learning and memory..
For complete article

Low doses of widely consumed cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabidivarin) cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human-derived cells.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are natural cannabinoids which are consumed in increasing amounts worldwide in cannabis extracts, as they prevent epilepsy, anxiety, and seizures. It was claimed that they may be useful in cancer therapy and have anti-inflammatory properties. Adverse long-term effects of these drugs (induction of cancer and infertility) which are related to damage of the genetic material have not been investigated.
Therefore, we studied their DNA-damaging properties in human-derived cell lines under conditions which reflect the exposure of consumers. Both compounds induced DNA damage in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) experiments in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in buccal-derived cells (TR146) at low levels (≥ 0.2 µM)…Our findings show that low concentrations of CBD and CBDV cause damage of the genetic material in human-derived cells. Furthermore, earlier studies showed that they cause chromosomal aberrations and MN in bone marrow of mice. Fixation of damage of the DNA in the form of chromosomal damage is generally considered to be essential in the multistep process of malignancy, therefore the currently available data are indicative for potential carcinogenic properties of the cannabinoids.
For complete Article
Surprising truths about legalizing cannabis

Cannabis: The case against legalisation
Executive Summary
Cannabis can be both addictive and harmful.
Our understanding of the precise extent and nature of the health implications of recreational cannabis use is developing but, at this stage, there is a great deal of uncertainty. On the eve of the first legal retail sales of recreational cannabis in Canada, the Canadian Medical Association Journal published an editorial which referred to legalisation as: a national, uncontrolled experiment in which the profits of cannabis producers and tax revenues are squarely pitched against the health of Canadians.1
The World Health Organisation recognises addiction rates of 1 in every 9 adults that uses cannabis. This rate of addiction is significantly higher in teenagers, the very age group most susceptible to its harmful effects.
For complete Report go to ‘Legalizing Cannabis could create up to 100,000 new Cannabis Addicts!

Cannabis withdrawal can be 'highly disabling'
Authorities are legalizing cannabis, particularly for medicinal use, in an increasing number of states. Many people stand by its alleged benefits, but new research warns that frequent use may lead to the "disabling" symptoms of cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
The researchers also note that cannabis withdrawal symptoms appeared to be linked with mental disability and a family history of depression.
Also, these symptoms were associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders (social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), personality disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder
For complete article

The availability of substances became rampant in the wake of legalization, and yes it was affecting our oldest son Trevor, now 16.


Quotable Quote
"Unbeknownst to me Amy was now smoking cannabis. I always thought she'd know when to stop. She was buying cannabis right under my very nose"…"There was so much guilt and shame tied up with all Amy's addictions that it was painful to witness. I just had to keep reminding myself that it's the reality all loved ones are forced to confront if they decide to be supportive of a loved one with addiction problems."
Janis Winehouse

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