Oceania Highlights: Talent Identification and Performance
17 October 2016
Hello Oceania Sports Community,
Welcome to the tenth issue of Oceania Highlights with selected articles on talent identification and performance.
There are articles from various sports such as basketball to surfing, but I believe there is a gem of knowledge in all of the articles no matter the sport.
Enjoy this month's issue and don't forget to email me with any article requests. Thank you and have a good day.
Martin V Burrows Jr.
Oceania Sport Information Centre (OSIC)
Olympics and Talent Prediction
Allen, S. V., et al. (2015). "Predicting a Nation's Olympic-Qualifying Swimmers." International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance 10(4): 431-435.
Talent identification and development typically involve allocation of resources toward athletes selected on the basis of early-career performance. Purpose: To compare 4 methods for early-career selection of Australia's 2012 Olympic-qualifying swimmers. Methods: Performance times from 5738 Australian swimmers in individual Olympic events at 101 competitions from 2000 to 2012 were analyzed as percentages of world-record times using 4 methods that retrospectively simulated early selection of swimmers into a talent-development squad. For all methods, squad-selection thresholds were set to include 90% of Olympic qualifiers. One method used each swimmer's given-year performance for selection, while the others predicted each swimmer's 2012 performance. The predictive methods were regression and neural-network modeling using given-year performance and age and quadratic trajectories derived using mixed modeling of each swimmer's annual best career performances up to the given year. All methods were applied to swimmers in 2007 and repeated for each subsequent year through 2011.
Baker, J., et al. (2013). "Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit ratio (2D:4D), and selection to a national talent development system." Laterality 18(6): 710-718.
Over the past decade a small evidence base has highlighted the potential importance of seemingly innocuous variables related to one's hands, such as hand dominance and the relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), to success in sport. This study compared 2D:4D digit ratio and handedness among handball players selected to advance in a national talent development system with those not selected.
Byounggoo, K. (2014). "Sports Talent Identification and Selection in Korea." International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 26(2): 99-111.
The purpose of this study is to review how Korea Institute of Sport Science (KISS) had carried out sports talent identification and selection for enhancing athletic performance over the last three decades.
Coyne, J. O. C., et al. (2016). "Association between anthropometry, upper extremity strength, and sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 11(5): 728-735.
This study investigated the correlations with anthropometry, upper extremity strength, and surfboard paddling performance in recreational and competitive surfers.
Krasilshchikov, O. (2013). "TALENT IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: REASSESSING THE PRINCIPLE MODEL. Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae 53(1): 25-32.
Talent identification, orientation within wide variety of sports and events, and further selection is a complex multidimensional process. Purpose of the study was to scrutinize the systems of Talent Identification and Development available worldwide in order to suggest how the current principle model of talent identification and development can be optimized. Available literature and systems of talent identification and development existing in the world's leading sporting nations were examined and evaluated. Apart from other important factors determining the approaches to Talent Identification, one kept overweighing all others. That was availability or absence of human resources to pick the talent from. Reviewing the current practices of talent identification and development, value-added models of Talent Identification continuum and talent development are suggested.
McCarthy, N., et al. (2016). "Start hard, finish better: further evidence for the reversal of the RAE advantage." Journal of Sports Sciences 34(15): 1461-1465.
The relative age effect (RAE) has been highlighted extensively within literature as influencing selection and identification within sports. However, this initial bias appears to not be systemic in some talent development systems. Accordingly, we report an investigation into the initial identification, selection and conversion of academy players from professional Rugby Union and Cricket at national level. Reflecting previous studies, data again demonstrated a reversal of RAE advantage whereby relatively young players from both sports were less likely to be selected into their respective national academy systems but were more likely to transition into senior national squads. On the basis of our observations, we further propose a psychological explanation for the mechanism of such a reversal, based on the influence of additional challenge experienced throughout the development journey. As such, we also highlight the need for further qualitative investigation to explore this phenomenon in greater depth.
Athlete Development Pathways @ Clearinghouse for Sport
Talent Identification and Basketball
Folle, A., et al. (2015). "Personal attributes of female basketball athletes in training." Brazilian Journal of Kineanthropometry & Human Performance 17(6): 672-682.
This study, based on the Bioecological Theory of Human Development, was aimed at examining the personal attributes of athletes belonging to a prominent club in the field of developing female basketball athletes.
Mokou, E., et al. (2016). "Repeated sprinting ability in basketball players: a brief review of protocols, correlations and training interventions." Journal of Physical Education & Sport 16(1): 217-221.
Although repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a major determinant of performance in basketball, only a few studies have examined previously RSA in this sport compared to the extensive existing literature on other team sports (e.g. soccer). The aim of the present study was to review previous studies that have examined RSA in basketball players. The characteristics of RSA protocols (sprint distance, number of sprints, change of direction, duration and mode of recovery) and training interventions were analyzed, and we highlighted the differences with regards to these characteristics. Based on this review, it was concluded that (a) the different characteristics of existing RSA protocols make any comparison of scores among them impossible, (b) most of the existing protocols used in basketball players did not correspond to the dimensions of a basketball court, (c) repeated sprints can be implemented in a sports-specific physical fitness program to improve RSA and other physical fitness components (sprint, muscle power and aerobic capacity), and (d) more research in RSA of elite adult basketball players and in children is needed, because most of the existing studies has been conducted on a very narrow range of age (15-17 years).
te Wierike, S. C. M., et al. (2015). "Role of maturity timing in selection procedures and in the specialisation of playing positions in youth basketball." Journal of Sports Sciences 33(4): 337-345.
This study investigated the role of maturity timing in selection procedures and in the specialisation of playing positions in youth male basketball.
Talent Identification and Football
Emmonds, S., et al. (2016). "Anthropometric, speed and endurance characteristics of English academy soccer players: Do they influence obtaining a professional contract at 18 years of age?" International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 11(2): 212-218.
This study evaluated the anthropometric, speed and endurance characteristics of English academy soccer players, comparing players who obtained a 'professional' contract at 18 years old with those that did not ('academy'); 443 male academy soccer players from an English professional club undertook anthropometric (height and body mass), speed (10 and 20m sprint) and endurance (Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 [Yo-Yo]) assessments between 2005 and 2012.
Galy, O., et al. (2015). "Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania." Biology of Sport 32(2): 135-141.
This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors.
HÖner, O., et al. (2015). "Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme." Journal of Sports Sciences 33(2): 145-159.
The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results.
Horrocks, D. E., et al. (2016). "Qualitative perspectives on how Manchester United Football Club developed and sustained serial winning." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 11(4): 467-477.
Talent development in sport is well represented in scientific literature. Yet, the drive to protect 'trade secrets' often means that access to these high performing groups is rare, especially as these high-level performances are being delivered. This leaves the details of high-end working practices absent from current academic commentary. As a result, clubs interested in developing excellent practice are left to build on personal initiative and insight and/or custom-and-practice, which is unlikely to yield successful outcomes. To address this shortfall, the current study reports on prolonged engagement with a single high performing club, considering how their practice corresponds with existing sport talent development models.
Skorski, S., et al. (2016). "The Relative Age Effect in Elite German Youth Soccer: Implications for a Successful Career." International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance 11(3): 370-376.
To investigate whether anthropometric profiles and fitness measures vary according to birth-date distribution in the German national youth soccer teams and to analyze whether there is a difference in the chance of becoming a professional soccer player depending on birth quarter (BQ).
Talent Identification and Rugby/League/AFL
Bennett, K. J. M., et al. (2016). "Positional group significantly influences the offensive and defensive skill involvements of junior representative rugby league players during match play." Journal of Sports Sciences 34(16): 1542-1546.
This study examined the skill involvements of three positional groups across a junior representative rugby league season.
Cripps, A. J., et al. (2016). "Coaches' perceptions of long-term potential are biased by maturational variation." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 11(4): 478-481
Talent identification and development programs seek to recognise and promote athletes with long-term potential in a particular sport. Coaches involved in these programs are often required to make inclusion or exclusion decisions based on their perceptions of an athlete's long-term potential. However, biological maturity can influence physical capabilities of adolescent athletes and may bias coaches' perceptions of long-term potential. This study explored the relationship between coaches' perceptions of long-term potential and variations in athlete's biological maturity.
Cripps, A. J., et al. (2015). "Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League’s Kicking and Handball Tests." Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 14(3): 675-680.
Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League’s National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways.
Hendricks, S., et al. (2015). "Measuring Skill in Rugby Union and Rugby League as Part of the Standard Team Testing Battery." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 10(5): 949-965.
Coaches, strength and conditioning coaches, and researchers typically use a standard testing battery as a screening tool to measure physical characteristics of players. The information from this testing battery is subsequently utilized to check whether a player can meet the demands of the sport, talent identification, long-term player development, squad/team selection and/or for designing training programs.
Spamer, E. J. (2009). "TALENT IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN YOUTH RUGBY PLAYERS: A RESEARCH REVIEW." South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education & Recreation (SAJR SPER) 31(2): 109-118.
Several South African studies were conducted during the past twelve years (1995 to 2007) as part of a research project on Talent Identification and Development. The main objective of this project was to compile the profile of a potential talented and elite youth rugby player, primarily within the conceptual research model proposed by Salmela and Régnier (1983).
Till, K., et al. (2014). "Considering maturation status and relative age in the longitudinal evaluation of junior rugby league players." Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 24(3): 569-576.
This study longitudinally evaluated whether maturation and relative age interact with time during adolescence to differentially affect the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players.
Talent Identification and Swimming
Brauer Junior, A. G., et al. (2007). "Trajectoty of development of morfofunctionals pointers as criteria of identification of the sports talent in swimming." Fitness & Performance Journal (Online Edition) 6(6): 382-387.
Objective:The identification of the sports talent is an essential component for the development of programs for the sport of high level. The best swimmers are notably different of the swimmers with less success, these differences physical, physiological or psychological, are predominantly inherited by genetic and, therefore, they are not easy to modify with the influence of the training. One of the most important predictors for the determination of the sports talent in swimming is represented by the trajectory of morfofunctionals pointers development. Thus, the objective of this study is to present the trajectory of the morfofunctionals pointers development as criterion for the identification of the sports talent in swimming.
Hopkins, W. G., et al. (2014). "Performance Outcomes at the XII International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming." Sportscience 18: 1-7.
This quadrennial conference was hosted in 2014 by the Australian Institute of Sport in Canberra, Australia. Best presentations for sport generally: extra warm-up; participation base. Best presentations for swimming: hearing pressure on the hand; coach assessment errors.