Oceania Highlights
Issue 5 2016

16 May 2016

Hello Oceania Sports Community,

Welcome to the fifth issue of Oceania Highlights. In this issue we will be focusing on the topic of coaching. Next issue is on strength and conditioniong.

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Expert youth coaches’ diversification strategies in talent development : A qualitative typology
By Lenard Voigt and Andreas Hohmann.
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Feb 2016, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p39.
 The development of expert-level performance in sports is discussed against the background of two different pathways. The early specialization approach emphasizes both early onset and high volumes of sport-specific practice in a desired main sport. On the other hand, the diversification approach promotes diversified involvement in a range of other sports with later specialization. This study examines the way in which youth coaches translate the antagonistic concepts of specialization and diversification into their coaching strategies during the early stages of talent development. Using qualitative research methodology, 44 expert German youth coaches (M age¼45.1 years, SD¼7.5; 39 male and 5 female) in 24 different sports, with an average of 21.7 years accumulated coaching experience (SD¼7.0) were includedin the inductive thematic analysis. Analysis showed a differentiated understanding of the process of specialization that considered multiple ways to apply diversification both within sports and across several sports. Although all of the coaches appeared to acknowledge the importance of within-sports diversification, there was considerable variation in the reported purposeful implementation and significance of sporting activities other than the main sport leading to a nuanced typology of strategies. The typology could be divided into the following four categories based on the preferred strategies that the coaches described: (I) changers and late entrants; (II) early engagement in DS+ secondary sports; (III) early engagement in DS+ supplementary sports; and (IV) early engagement in DS+ specialization. The findings strengthened existing suggestions of a gradual and multidimensional understanding of diversification prior to necessary specialization. Furthermore, it can be assumed that the preferred strategies are fundamentally influenced by individual cognitions and contextual aspects that acknowledge the complex and ideographical nature of coaching.

Players’ Perceptions of Coaches’Contributions to their Mental
By Roberta Antonini; PhilippeSam; S. Sagar, Markus Gerber; & Denis Hauw.
Source : International Journal of Coaching Science, Vol.10 No.1, January 2016. pp. 37-51.
This study examined elite rugby players’ perceptions of the mechanisms by which their coaches contribute to the development and maintenance of their mental toughness. Seventeen elite rugby players (Mage = 28.6 years; SD = 6.1 years) from the Swiss National Rugby Team were interviewed individually. Qualitative data analysis based on personal construct psychology (Kelly, 1955/1991) revealed three dimensions of the coaches’ role: (1) expertise, (2) instruction, and (3) development.
The findings show that the nature of the coach-athlete relationship and interactions can help to develop and maintain mental toughness. Moreover, coaches have a particularly strong influence during the development stage, when athletes express great interest in their coaches’ behaviour as a model for improving their own mental toughness. The findings have both practical and theoretical implications and are valuable for coaches, athletes, sport practitioners and scholars, in forming their understanding of athletes’ mental toughness and the coach-athlete working relationship. Further, they inform coaching scientists and practitioners in their endeavours to design educational programmes for coaches.

Sport Coaching Context and Social Organization
 By Marcio Domingues; Fernando Renato Cavichiolli  & Carlos E. Conçalves.
 Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2014. pp. 1-15.
 The purpose of this study was to examine how coaching context relates to behaviors
and attitudes in youth sports; different types of sporting contexts determine
different approaches and needs in coaching. Nine coaches from a social and a professional
sport setting were interviewed. Methods such as semi-structured interviews and participant
observation were used in data collection and data was analyzed through content analysis.
Coaches are key aspects to training and their perception of social organizational climate
can play an important role in youths’ personal development. The study provides more
information about the need to create nurturing environments for talented athletes’ program.
The study also stresses the way organization and structure influence the way coaches look
at competition and training, highlighting the issue of sport settings as a factor that may
distinguish between coaches’ orientations at different contexts. Finally, the sporting context
and its relation to developing skills were analyzed. The current results have implications
for both coaching youth sport and for the educational programs of these coaches in other
countries and sport systems.
Mentally tough athletes are more aware of unsupportive coaching behaviours : Perceptions of coach behaviour, motivational climate, and mental toughness in sport
By Adam R Nicholls ; Dave Morley and John L Perry. Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Vol. 11, No.2, 2016. pp. 172–181.
 In this study, we tested an a priori model that included coach behaviour, motivational climate, and mental toughness among 290 athletes. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that supportive coach behaviours were related to a task-involving climate, and that task-involving climates positively associated with mental toughness. The path between supportive coach behaviours and mental toughness was insignificant. When task-involving climate was taken into account,however, supportive coach behaviours were positively associated with task-involving climates, which in turn was positively associated with mental toughness. This study illustrates the importance of coach behaviour in relation to shaping the motivational climate, which in turn may impact on the development of mental toughness among athletes.
Positive psychology techniques -- Random Acts of Kindness and Consistent Acts of Kindness and Empathy
By Passmore, Jonathan & Oades, Lindsay, G.
Coaching Psychologist, Vol.11, Issue 2, Dec. 2015. p.68.
This is the first in a series of papers to look at Positive Psychology Coaching (PPC) as an approach suitable for use with coaching clients. This paper presents a brief overview of PPC for reader

The Ethics of Coaching Sports: Moral, Social, and Legal Issues
By Robert L. Simon.
 International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Vol.9, No.1, 2014. 312 pp.
 Designed to be accessible to non-specialists (p. ix), this book is concerned with the roles,
duties and responsibilities of the coach and examines significant issues facing coaches (p. 5).
The editor is Bartlett Professor of Philosophy at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, and a former president of the International Association for the Philosophy of Sports (back cover). He was also head coach of Hamilton College’s men’s golf team (1987-2001) (p. xi). The book is divided into four parts: Introduction; The Coach’s Role: Conceptions of Coaching;Coaching and the Ethics of Competition; and Coaching, Compliance, and the Law. In “The Ethics of Coaching” (p. 3-8), Robert Simon implicitly refers to the distinction that some authors like to make between instruction, teaching and coaching; and the following passage sets the scene for the whole book in terms of ethics.

 By Günay Eskici; HakanYarar & Hürmüz Koc.
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, Vol.38, No.1, 2016. pp. 59-73.
 Coaches have an important responsibility in the lives of athletes since athletes often use them as a source of advice for various performance-related issues, such as the nutritional regime. This descriptive study set out to identify the nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of coaches from various sport codes, as well as their nutrition recommendations for their athletes. The study included 165 individuals from different sporting codes i.e. team, strength, explosive power and endurance sports. Coaches were given a self-administered questionnaire with 76 questions. Most coaches had poor diet choices. For instance, the number of coaches who regularly consume vegetables, fruits and fish was low and most skipped meals attributable to limited opportunities and/or not feeling hungry. 76% of the 165 coaches alleged that they had sufficient knowledge about nutrition and 82% of the coaches provided knowledge about nutrition to their athletes. There was a significant difference among coaches of different sport codes in their recommendations concerning nutritional ergogenic supplements (p<0.01). The coaches of strength sport mostly recommended proteins/amino acid supplements. Coaches predominantly gave the correct or expected answer to both general nutritional knowledge and sport nutritional knowledge questions. However, the suggestions that coaches made to their athletes about training nutrition was inadequate.
 Special Group in Coaching Psychology News
By Grajfoner, Dasha. International Coaching Psychology Review, Vol.11,    Issue 1, Mar. 2016. p. 106.
The article discusses the highlights of the 5th European Coaching Psychology Conference in December 2015. It says that Helen Turnbull spoke about stereotyping, inclusion and diversity at workplace.
Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.
Dijkstra, H. Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R &  Alonso, J. M.
British Journal of Sports Medicine Apr2014, Vol. 48 Issue 7, p1 9p.
Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multi specialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Who sees change after leadershipcoaching? An analysis of impact by rater level and self-other alignment on multi-source feedback.
By Doug MacKie.
Source : International Coaching Psychology Review, Vol.10, Issue 2, Sep.2015. p. 118.
 The objective of this research was to investigate the use of multi-source feedback in assessing the effectiveness of a strength-based coaching methodology in enhancing elements of the full range leadership model. It also investigated the effects of self-other rater alignment on leadership outcomes after coaching.
Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes :
A Systematic Review
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 2015, 32, 256-276
By Hannah Macdougall; Paul O’Halloran; Nora Shields, and Emma Sherry
This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and
Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with
Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic
identity, d = -0.47, 95% confidence interval (Cl) [-0.77, -0.16], and body-image
perceptions, d = -0.33, 95% Cl [-0.59, -0.07], and differed from Olympic sport
athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate,
d = 0.74, 95% Cl [0.46, 1.03], Given an inability to pool the remaining data for
meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other
dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications
for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes
under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models
of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.
Committed relationships and enhanced threat levels: Perceptions of coach behavior, the coach–athlete relationship, stress appraisals, and coping among
BY Adam R Nicholls,  Andrew R Levy, Leigh Jones, Rudi Meir
Jon N Radcliffe and John L Perry
Source : International Journal of Sports Science& Coaching2016, Vol. 11(1) 16–26
The purpose of this study was to assess an a priori model that included perceptions of coach behavior, coach–athlete relationship, stress appraisals, and coping. A total of 274 athletes from the United Kingdom, Australia, and Hong Kong completed relevant measures that assessed each construct. Our   results revealed that perceptions of coach behaviour were associated with aspects of the coach–athlete relationship and stress appraisals. In particular, closeness was positively associated with challenge appraisals and negatively with threat appraisals. However, commitment was positively
associated with threat, indicating that there might be some negative implications of having a highly committed coach–athlete relationship. Further, commitment was also positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping, which has previously been linked to poor performance and lower goal-attainment. Applied practitioners could monitor athlete’s perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship, particularly commitment levels, and provide training in appraising stress and coping to those who also score highly on threat and disengagement-oriented coping, but low on task-oriented coping.
Career facilitators and obstacles of Australian football development coaches
By Andrew Dawson; Talei Dioth and Paul B Gastin
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Apr2016, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p255
Career development is considered integral to the success of individuals, organisations and professions. Coaches play a vital role in the success of sport, yet little is known about their career development. Despite the advances in career development for athletes, there has been very little scholarly attention, nor resources provided for coach career development, especially for coaches working outside elite and professional sport. This pilot study explored the career development facilitators and obstacles of junior development Australian football coaches. Semi-structured inter-views were used to collect data on the career development of six practicing junior development Australian football coaches. These six (of only 12 employed) coaches worked in the main elite junior development league for Australian football, the Transport Accident Commission Cup. The themes that emerged from the data revealed that the career development of junior development Australian football coaches was facilitated first by their high motivation to coach
because of their enjoyment of seeing young players develop and transition into the elite competition. The second facilitator was the coach’s awareness of their career development needs and their willingness to do their own career development despite limited opportunity, guidance or support. The key obstacles to Transport Accident Commission Cup coach career development included a lack of opportunity to spend time at elite clubs to observe and interact with elite coaches; a lack of time due to having a non-coaching job to financially support their coaching work and their family as well; the high demands of the coaching role had a negative impact on their work life balance and often conflicted with time they would rather spend with their families; and finally, the lack of institutional support for coaches who were asked to work long hours for low wages and little reward despite their vital role in the elite player development pathway for the Australian Football League. This research suggests that junior development Australian football coaches have a clear understanding of their role and how it changes as their career develops; however, the coaches are limited by external forces in their career development. Junior development Australian football coaches are vital for Australian Football League development; however, there is disconnection between Australian Football League goals and their capacity to nurture elite athletes into the sport’s system due to part-time coaching roles, limited resources and few opportunities for coaches to develop their careers.
Coaching under pressure  : A study of Olympic coaches
By  Ousogu, Peter; Maynard, Kate Hays   Ian & Butt, Joanne
Source : Centre for Sport and Exercise Science,
 Feb 2012, Vol. 30  Issue 3.
The Olympic environment has been identified as particularly stressful and unlike any other in terms of the media attention and focus placed on the competition. While the potential negative consequences of stress for coaches and their athletes have been explored, relatively little is known about the factors underpinning successful Olympic coaching performance. We
explored elite coaches’ perceptions of the factors that enable them to coach in a stressful Olympic environment. Eight coaches from one of Great Britain’s most successful Olympic teams (i.e. consistent medal winners in the previous three (Olympics) were interviewed. Inductive content analysis indicated that psychological attributes (e.g. emotional control),
preparation (e.g. strategic approach), and coping at the event (e.g. team support) were factors that coaches perceived as important for successful Olympic coaching. In addition, coaches offered specific suggestions for training and development.
Key themes included coach interaction (e.g. mentoring, formalizing contact) and simulating Olympic pressure. These findings offer suggestions for the education of developing coaches on the pathway to elite sports coaching.
The Association Between The Perceived  Coach–Athlete Relationship And Athlets’ Basic Psychological Needs
 Source : Social Behaviour and Personality, 2013, 41(9), 1547-1556
In this study we investigated the association between the perceived coach–athlete relationship
and athletes’ 3 basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
Participants were 328 Korean collegiate athletes from various sports. The study results
showed that, overall, the perceived coach–athlete relationship was related to the athletes’ basic
psychological needs. Specifically, commitment and closeness were significantly correlated
with competence and autonomy, whereas complementarity was significantly correlated with
competence and relatedness.
Coaches as a Potential Source of AthletesSelf-Presentational Concern
By : Ross Lorimer
Source: International Journal of Coaching Science Vol. 8 No. 1 January 2014. pp. 83-91
 This study examined the association between athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ views of the quality of their coach-athlete relationship (i.e., an athlete’s meta-perception) and athletes’ self-presentational concerns related to their coach. 119 athletes completed a modified version of the Self-Presentation in Sport Questionnaire (Wilson & Ek lund, 1998) and the meta-version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (Jowett, 2009).All self-presentational concerns were negatively associated with increased perceptions of closeness and positively associated with increased perceptions of commitment. Athletes appear to perceive their coach as a potential source of self-presentational concern and that these concerns are associated with inferences about their coaches’ perception of the quality of that relationship. This suggests that a coach needs to be aware that how an athlete perceives the coach’s perception of the quality of the relationship can potentially impact on the concerns experienced by that athlete.
Morality in sport: The coach’s perspective
By Sandra Pela´ez,   Mark Wesley Aullsand Simon Louis Bacon2
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 2016, Vol. 11(2) 237–249
 Literature in the field of sport has noted that coaches can be major contributors to the moral tone held in the sport environment and athletes are receptive to the moral frame provided by the coach. At the same time, coaches’ perspectives of morality have been associated with the way coaches face moral issues that arise in the field. Therefore, the present study aimed at extending previous research seeking to illuminate the coach’s perspectives of morality by
(a) exploring coaches’ perspectives of morality; (b) analysing coaches’ responses in light of previous evidence; and (c) discussing the theoretical and practical implications of evidence. The present pilot study was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Participants were six coaches (Mage¼46.5; SD¼7.6), who had extended sport involvement, underwent required coaching education and were coaching at the time of the interview. Case 1 was represented by three females coaching an artistic individual sport and case 2 was represented by three males coaching an interactive team
sport. Thematic data analysis was conducted. Results indicated that coaches found it difficult to articulate a definition of morality; though they did describe it as an ongoing learning process, context-related, that entailed reciprocity, and therefore, required permanent interchange, co-creation, negotiation and adjustment. The coaches also identified two main perspectives of morality: the moral perspective (i.e. being able to differentiate what is right from what is wrong, doing what is right and considering self-related wellbeing) and the social perspective (i.e. sport involvement and team dynamics). Extrapolating the evidence from this study may suggest that coaches could benefit from moral education
interventions, which may then translate to a reduction in or prevention of undesired consequences associated with encompassing moral behaviour.

Nutrition Coaching : A Primer for Health and Fitness Professionals
By : Digate, Natalie
Source :IDEA Fitness Journal May2015, Vol. 12 Issue 5, p58

How to stay within scope of practice while using proven motivational  techniques.
Fitness professionals should discuss nutrition with their clients. Historically, many fitness pros have either avoided nutrition discussions for fear of straying outside their scope of practice or gone overboard by exceeding their scope of practice—recommending nutritional supplements or individualized meal plans. There is a better way: Staying with in scope of practice while adopting a coaching philosophy that uses proven methods of behavior change. The need is clear. Few Americans abide by national recommendations for a healthy diet that prevents disease, promotes health and manages weight, and many lack access to individualized dietary counseling from recognized nutrition experts like registered dietitians. It often falls to health and fitness professionals such as personal trainers, group fitness instructors and health coaches to steer people toward healthier nutrition choices. Recognizing this reality, IDEA has expanded its education, training, resources and official stand on nutrition. IDEA defers to the American Council on Exercise’s position statement urging fitness professionals to talk nutrition with their clients (ACE 2013). At least10 fitness organizations offer additional
training in nutrition. Clearly, fitness professionals are a key ally and resource for helping Americans to make healthy

Clinch Your Coaching Style
Focus on your strengths instead of trying to be all things to ail student
By Light, Pamela
Source :  IDEA Fitness Journal Apr2016, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p66
You look across the hall at Popular Instructor’s class and marvel at how she packs the house day after day, week after week. You’ve studied her style and tried your best to emulate her music, cuing, choreography—even the way she dresses—but your numbers are shrinking instead of growing. What are you doing wrong? There are many reasons people come to your class, but number one on the list is you. Think about it: You are a leader, a motivator, an educator and a role model. If you try to be someone other than yourself,  it’s like teaching a high impact class in a pair of shoes that are five sizes too big. You fall flat on your face. The best way to clinch your coaching  style and shine like the star you are is to capitalize on your personal strengths and neutralize your weaknesses.
How Would You Recognise an Expert Coach if You Saw One?
By Lee Wharton and Tony Rossi
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 10 · Number 2+3 · 2015 577
Literature that frames coaching practice and specifically the formation and determination of expert coaching practice reveals a body of research that generally lacks continuity. Importantly, arguments relating to the instability of professional interpretations of coaching practice appear to stem from a penchant for subjective investigation. This analysis draws on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles, chapters and books – all published within
the last 35 years that address the notion of coaching practice. The key themes to emerge point to the idea that much of the research used to establish conceptual clarity fails to distinguish between highly organised or efficient coaching practice and expert coaching practice. This paper concludes with some suggestions from alternate paradigms and
disciplines that suggest that expertise in interceptive sports coaching may be better theorised and suitably identified through a lens of the growing ideas surrounding the concept of ‘emergence’.

Thank you very much for reading this issue. Have a nice day


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Issue 5 2016

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