Oceania Highlights
Issue 4 2016

15 April 2016

Hello Oceania Sports Community,

Welcome to the fourth issue of Oceania Highlights. In this issue we will be focusing on the topic of nutrition.

If you are interested in an article, send me an email and I will forward you the article. Please include title and author. Also, I have an additional listing/bibliography of articles available, just email me and I will send it.

In other news, we are uploading Pacific Games videos from 2003 and 2015 on OSIC's Youtube page. We already have baseball  2003 uploaded and will have others up shortly.

We have some old copies of Successful Coaching- (2) of the third edition and 1 of the second edition. If you would like a copy, just email us.

In closing, I would like to say congratulations to everybody who has qualified for the Olympics and good luck to those who are waiting on their chance to qualify.

You can always reach OSIC at or Our phone number is +679-323-1958 or +679-722-4181(Digicel) or +679-834-8571(Vodafone).

Martin V Burrows Jr.
Oceania Sport Information Centre (OSIC)\osic


Sport-Specific Nutrition: Practical Strategies for Team Sports
By Francis E. Holway & Lawrence L. Spriet
Journal of Sport Sciences Dec 2011
Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete’s nutritional needs.

Carbohydrate  Nutrition and Team Sport Performance
By Williams, Clyde & Rollo, Ian
Sport Medicine Nov 2015
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen store.

2016 Update on Eating Disorders in Athletes: A Comprehensive Narrative Review With a Focus on Clinical Assessment and Management
By Joy, Elizabeth; Kussman, Andrea & Nattiv, Aurelia
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2016
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, can have devastating effects on both the health and performance of athletes. Compared to non-athletes, both female and male athletes are at higher risk of developing an eating disorder. This is especially true for athletes participating in sports where low body weight or leanness confers a competitive advantage. Screening for disordered eating behaviours, eating disorders and for related health consequences should be a standard component of preparticipation examinations, and team physicians should be knowledgeable of the updated diagnostic criteria for eating disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-V. Athletes with eating disorders should undergo thorough evaluation and treatment by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Team physicians play a critical role in decision-making on clearance for participation and return to play. Using evidence-based guidelines for clearance and return to play encourages transparency and accountability between the sports medicine care team and the athlete. Efforts to prevent eating disorders should be aimed at athletes, coaches, parents and athletic administrators, and focused on expanding knowledge of healthy nutrition in support of sport performance and health.

Nutrition Considerations in Special Environments for Aquatic Sports
By Stellingwerff, Trent;  Pyne, David B. & and Burke, Louise M.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism Aug2014
Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16–31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when travelling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favourable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environment.

Evaluation of Food Provision and Nutrition Support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: The Opinion of Sports Nutrition Experts
By Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L.; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J. & Burke, Louise
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism Dec2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n= 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

Use of dietary supplements among elite athletes
Omeragić, Elma; Đeđibegović, Jasmina; Sober, Miroslav; Marjanović, Aleksandra; Dedić, Mirza; Niksić, Haris & Fidahić, Mahir
SportLogia Jun2015
Abstract: Many athletes use supplements in their diet as part of regular training or competition, thus enabling more intense training by encouraging faster recovery between workouts, minimizing interference caused by disease or injury and increasing competitive performance. These supplements, unlike medications, are not subject to rigorous efficiency and safety checks and tests. There is a risk with regard to those supplements which include positive doping test result as a consequence of presence of the prohibited substances not listed in the declaration of the preparation. The aim of this study was to examine the use of supplements among elite athletes by analyzing the forms for doping control, issued by the Agency for Anti-doping control of Bosnia and Herzegovina, performed in the period from 2010 to 2012. The study includes supplements whose use was reported by athletes in the period of the last 7 days (prior testing). The study results indicate the frequency of dietary supplements use of 34.5%. The most dominant group among users of dietary supplements were men aged between 18 and 29 years. From 152 users of dietary supplements 62.3% of them have used more than one product. The number of used supplements was an average of 2.9±2.8 products. Amino acids and proteins are the most commonly used dietary supplements. This study confirmed excessive use of dietary supplements among elite athletes and pointed to the need of necessary education and ensuring the availability of scientific and unbiased information, about the benefits and risks of dietary supplements use, to athletes.
Performance Nutrition Guidelines for International Rugby Sevens Tournaments
By Dziedzic, Christine E.  & Higham, Dean
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism Jun2014
Rugby sevens is an abbreviated version of rugby union, played by teams of seven players over 7-min halves. International competitions are usually played in a tournament format. While shorter in duration, the movement demands of rugby sevens per min of match time are greater than rugby union, resulting in an accentuated load on players. This load can be repeated up to six times over a typical 2- or 3-day competition period. The potential cumulative effect of inadequate carbohydrate, protein and/or fluid intake over the course of a tournament is the greatest nutrition-related concern for players. Nutritional strategies before and during competition are suggested to replenish substrate stores, maintain fluid balance and promote recovery between matches. The use of ergogenic aids known to enhance intermittent, high-intensity activity and/or the execution of motor skills may be advantageous to rugby sevens performance and is discussed. This review provides a best-practice model of nutritional support for international rugby sevens competition based on our current understanding of the sport combined with pragmatic guidelines and considerations for the practitioner.

Physical and Energy Requirements of Competitive Swimming Events
By Pyne, David B & Sharp, Rick L.
 International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism Aug2014
The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.
Relationship Between General Nutrition Knowledge
and Dietary Quality in Elite Athletes
By Sprong, Inge; Heaney,  Susan E., Prvan, Tania & OÇonnor, Helen T.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2015
This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and diet quality by an adapted version of the Australian Recommended Food Score (A-ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modeling were used to assess relationships between vari-
ables. Data: mean (Standard Deviation). A total of 101 athletes (Males: 37; Females: 64), 18.6 (4.6) years were recruited mainly from team sports (72.0%). Females scored higher than males for both nutrition knowledge (Females: 59.9%; Males: 55.6%; p =.017) and total A-ARFS (Females: 54.2% Males: 49.4%; p = .016). There was no significant influence of age, level of education, athletic caliber or team/individual sport participation on nutrition knowledge or total A-ARFS. However, athletes engaged in previous dietetic consultation had significantly higher nutrition knowledge (61.6% vs. 56.6%; p = .034) but not total A-ARFS (53.6% vs.52.0%; p = .466). Nutrition knowledge was weakly but positively associated with total A-ARFS (r= .261,p=.008) and A-ARFS vegetable subgroup (r= .252, p = .024) independently explaining 6.8% and 5.1% of the variance respectively. Gender independently explained 5.6% of the variance in nutrition knowledge (p= .017) and 6.7% in total A-ARFS (p = .016). Higher nutrition knowledge and female gender were weakly but positively associated with better diet quality. Given the importance of nutrition to health and optimal sports performance, intervention to improve nutrition knowledge and healthy eating is recommended, especially for young male athletes.

Have a good weekend.



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Issue 4 2016

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