Oceania Highlights
Issue 6 2016
Strength and Conditioning

15 June 2016

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Welcome to the fifth issue of Oceania Highlights. In this issue we will be focusing on the topic of strength and conditioning.

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Strength and Conditioning

Strength & Conditioning :Concepts for the Track and Field Coach
By :Cissik, John M.
Source : Modern Athlete & Coach Apr2016, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p10.
The article discusses the concepts of strength, conditioning and speed training for track and field coaches in developing its athletes full potential and ability.

The Response to and Recovery From Maximum-Strength
and -Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes
By : Glyn Howatson, Raphael Brandon, and Angus M. Hunter
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2016,11,356-362
There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse. Purpose: To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular
and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes. Methods: Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 x 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter.
Effective Behaviours of Strength and Conditioning Coaches as Perceived by Athletes
 By : Chistoph Szedlak1, Matthew J Smith2, Melissa C Day and Iain A Greenlees
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 10 · Number 5 · 2015
The purpose of this study was to identify effective behaviours and characteristics of strength and conditioning coaches as perceived by elite athletes. Eight elite international level university athletes (Male = 6; Female = 2) with an average age of 20.4 years (SD = 1.3) and an average of 7 years’ experience in their sport (SD = 2.4) were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Three general dimensions were identified: behaviours that enhance the relationship between the athlete and their coach; coaches’ actions; and coaches’ values. The findings confirm previous research that areas such as instruction, technical knowledge and feedback are essential in delivering effective strength and conditioning coaching. However, the results further highlight the important role of higher order characteristics such as trust, respect, role modelling, authenticity, motivation and inspiration. The findings suggest that these higher order characteristics augment the default instructional coaching style as these behaviours enhance the strength and conditioning coaches’ effectiveness in developing the athlete. The results further aim to recommend competencies of strength and conditioning coaches by encouraging self-reflection and therefore optimising coaches’ development.
By : Mark Cudmore
Source : Volume 22 | Issue 2 | June 2014
Injury is a common occurrence in sport and although the strength and conditioning coach is well versed in the physiological aspects of injury rehabilitation; one area where the strength and condition coach can improve is to understand the relationship between the physiological and psychological components of injury rehabilitation. In addition to the pain associated with injury, athletes often struggle psychologically to cope and return to their chosen sport. The strength and conditioning coach needs to consider the individual nature of athletic injury while also considering that each injury is unique to the athlete and can be affected by such factors as age, experience and the severity of the injury. The results from numerous empirical studies have confirmed that the emotional aspects of injury rehabilitation need to be considered and the strength and conditioning coach has an important role in ensuring that the athlete is both physically and psychologically ready to return to competition. By considering the psychological aspects of injury rehabilitation it is hoped that the strength and conditioning coach will consider all aspects of the recovery process and expedite the athletes to return to competition. The use of psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery and thought stopping techniques can decrease injury rehabilitation times by increasing the athletes coping skills and overall motivation. These techniques can be easily implemented by the strength and conditioning coach and will assist in ensuring the athlete is physiologically and psychologically ready to return to their sport. This article examines the common mental attributes that an injured athletes faces in the rehabilitation process and provides a number of psychological skills that the strength and conditioning coach can assist the athlete to utilise through out their rehabilitation.

By : Spitzeck, Martin,
Source: Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning 2015, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p95
Shoulder impingement of the rotator cuff is most commonly an overuse condition. When pain starts we wished we would have paid more detail to preventative strategies. The purpose of the article is to show the reader the complex nature of shoulder impingement and the multi factorial treatment approach relating to posture, muscle imbalance, thoracic spine mobility, scapula muscle strength and rotator cuff strength. The trainer or coach will have.
By : Cheah Boon Chongcscs1, Loo Lean Hiong1, Tey Woan Jin2 and Chris Tee Chow Li2
Source : Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning Nov2015, Vol. 23 Issue 6, p30
During the transition period, that follows important competitions, national-level elite athletes may experience a reduction in performance and positive adaptations that were gained during the competition phase. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 2d/wk. x 3-wks maintenance conditioning program on lower body Rate of Force Development
(RFD), Peak Force (PF), and Peak Power (PPW) during the transition phase in karate athletes. Six subjects (3 male and 3 female) from the national karate team was chosen for this study. BCA was done using skinfold method. RFD, PF, PPW data was collected using SJ on force platform. Pre-test data was done 4 days prior to the start of the transition
phase and post-test data was collected 4 – 7 days after the start of the preparation phase. The conditioning program was performed twice a week over 3 weeks and consisted of 3 sets x 8 RM for strength exercises (10 exercises) and 12 RM for individualized pre-habilitation exercises. There was an increase in body fat % but the Effect Size was deemed
trivial (ES=0.1). Mean post data showed trivial increase in RFD (ES=0.1), but moderate and small improvement in PF (ES=1.0) and PPW (ES=0.2) respectively. The results of this study showed that with a structured twice weekly conditioning program during transition period is able to overcome detraining and maintain the positive performance gain from the competition phase.
By : Michael P. Reiman, Daniel S. Lorenz,
Source : International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy Sep2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p241
Background and Purpose: Rehabilitation and strength and conditioning are often seen as two separate entities in athletic injury recovery. Traditionally an athlete progresses from the rehabilitation environment under the care of a physical therapist and/or athletic trainer to the strength and conditioning coach for specific return to sport training.
These two facets of return to sport are often considered to have separate goals. Initial goals of each are often different due to the timing of their implementation encompassing different stages of post-injury recovery. The initial focus of post injury rehabilitation includes alleviation of dysfunction, enhancement of tissue healing, and provision of a systematic progression of range-of-motion and strength. During the return to function phases, specific return to play goals are paramount. Understanding of specific principles and program parameters is necessary when designing and implementing an athlete’s rehabilitation program. Communication and collaboration amongst all individuals caring for the athlete is a must. The purpose of this review is to outline the current evidence supporting utilization of training principles in athletic rehabilitation, as well as provide suggested implementation of such principles throughout different phases of a proposed rehabilitation program.
Broadening the View of Agility: A Scientific Review of the Literature. Australian Strength & Conditioning Association.
By :Sheppard, Jeremy M.; Jay Dawes, J.; Jeffreys, Ian; Spiteri, Tania; Nimphius, Sophia,Source : Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning Aug2014, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p6
Speed is a critical element for most sports. Consequently, speed training is an integral part of most strength and conditioning programs. Traditionally, the emphasis for developing speed has tended to focus on training and conditioning methods to develop acceleration and top speed while running in a straight line (14, 15, 30, 31, 34, 42, 61, 64, 67, 74,87, 90, 92, 98, 99, 127, 129, 130). However, when seeking to develop speed for both field and court sports many coaches and athletes have identified the importance of change of direction speed (CODS) by including drills aimed atimproving this unique physical attribute (44, 49, 75, 93, 120). This approach places a greater emphasis on improving“game speed” by incorporating specific movement patterns during multi-directional running drills. In general, many believe these types of drills are more contextually appropriate to game-like situations,
 Low volume progressive single set of resistance training is as effective as high volume multiple sets of resistance protocol on muscle strength and power.
By :Junyoung Hong; Smith, John D.; Ross, Corinna N.; Sukho Lee
 Source: International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences Jun2015, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p3
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of traditional high volume multiple set
resistance training and low volume progressive single set training on muscular strength and power in healthy male college students. A total of 19 students were randomly assigned to either a single set (ST,n=6), multiple sets (MT, n=7), or control group (CON, n=6). The ST (every 3rd day, 50-100% of 1RM, maximum 8 reps, single set) and MT (3 times/week, 70% of 1RM, 10 reps with 3 sets) trained for 8 weeks using an inclined leg press. One-repetition maximum (1RM), muscle maximal voluntary contraction, peak power, and electromyography were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Repeated-measured ANOVAs were used to find interaction effect between trial and treatment group factors. There was no significant increase on peak power after 8 weeks of resistance training both in
MT (p = .286) or ST (p = .372). 1RM in both training groups was significantly increased compared to their baseline values (p < .001). However, there was no significant difference in 1RM between the two training groups after 8 weeks of training. It indicates that ST is as effective as traditional high volume multi sets training protocol (MT) for increasing muscle strength.
Comparison between Pre-Exhaustion and Traditional Exercise Order on Muscle  Activation and Performance in Trained Men
By : Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Andrade Gomes, Willy; Alves Corrêa, Daniel; Paes Serpa, Érica; Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; de Barros Vilela Junior, Guanis; Zorzi Fioravanti, Gustavo; Saldanha Aoki, Marcelo; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique
Source : Journal of Sports Science & Medicine Mar2016, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p111
The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height:174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all
three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+ bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press + triceps
pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p= 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted.  There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006,
PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p= 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference
in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain,at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual responses
Effects of high-speed power training on muscle strength and power in
patients with multiple sclerosis
BY : Medina-Perez, Carlos; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Murua, Jose-Aldo; de Paz-Fernandez, Jose Antonio.
Source : Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2016, Vol. 53 Issue 3, p359
This study examined the effects of a high-speed power training program in peak muscle power and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extensors in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients, 20 women (age 42.8 +/– 10.3 yr) and 20 men (age 44.0 +/– 8.7 yr) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS were randomly assigned, with respect to sex, to either an exercise group or a control group. Participants from the exercise group performed 12 wk of supervised muscle power training of knee extensors. All subjects were tested for MVIC and peak muscle power at baseline and after the training intervention. A strain gauge was used to measure the MVIC, and peak muscle power was assessed with a linear encoder at five relative loads. The training-related effects were assessed using a t-test. The results showed no significant changes in the control group from base -line to post intervention evaluation. In contrast, the exercise group significantly in
creased MVIC (10.8%; p< 0.05) and muscle power at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the MVIC by 21.8, 14.5, 17.3, 19.4, and 22.3%, respectively (p< 0.01), after the training. These findings suggest that 12 wk of high-speed power training improve both MVIC and muscle power at five
different loads in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
Effects of Increased Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass
on Endurance-Cycling Performance
By : Nigo Mujika, Bent R. Ronnestad, and David T. Martin
Source : International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance,2016,11,283-289
Despite early and ongoing debate among athletes, coaches, and sport scientists, it is likely that resistance training for endurance cyclists can be tolerated, promotes desired adaptations that support training, and can directly improve performance. Lower-body
heavy strength training performed in addition to endurance-cycling training can improve both short- and long-term endurance performance. Strength-maintenance training is essential to retain strength gains during the competition season. Competitive female cyclists with greater lower-body lean mass (LBLM) tend to have -4-9% higher maximum mean power per kg LBLM over 1 s to 10 min. Such relationships enable optimal body composition to be modeled. Resistance training off the bike may be particularly useful for modifying LBLM, whereas more cycling-specific training strategies like eccentric cycling and single-leg cycling with a counterweight have not been thoughtfully investigated in well-trained cyclists. Potential mechanisms for improved endurance include postponed activation of less efficient type II muscle fibers, conversion of type IIX fibers into more fatigue- resistant Ila fibers, and increased muscle mass and rate of force development.

The Influence of Training Phase on Error of Measurement
in Jump Performance
By :Kristie-Lee Taylor, Will G. Hopkins, Dale W. Chapman, and John B. Cronin
Source : International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance,
The purpose of this study was to calculate the coefficients of variation in jump performance for individual participants in multiple trials over time to determine the extent to which there are real differences in the error of measurement between participants. The effect of training phase on measurement error was also investigated. Six subjects participated in a resistance-training intervention for 12 wk with mean power from a counter movement jump measured 6 d/wk. Using a mixed-model meta-analysis, differences between subjects, within-subject changes between training phases, and the mean error values during different phases of training were examined. Small, substantial factor differences of I. I I were observed between subjects; however, the finding was unclear based on the width of the confidence limits. The mean error was clearly higher during overload training than baseline training, by a factor of x/+1.3 (confidence limits 1.0-1.6). The random factor representing the interaction between subjects and train­ing phases revealed further substantial differences of x/h- 1.2 (1.1-1.3), indicating that on average, the error of measurement in some subjects changes more than in others when overload training is introduced. The results from this study provide the first indication that within-subject variability in performance is substantially different between training phases and, possibly, different between individuals. The implications of these findings for monitoring individuals and estimating sample size are discussed
Source : Science, Movement and Health, Vol. XVI, ISSUE 1, 2016January 2016, 16 (1): 69-73
Aim: We intend to make a theoretical review about proprioceptive training and its benefits. The aim of this paper is to realize a brief review on the benefits of the proprioceptive training. Proprioceptive training is used in the rehabilitation after injuries and begins to be recognized as an important element in preventing them, regardless of the sport. We allege that the goal of the proprioceptive training is also to develop muscle strength and neuromuscular control, so that the finality is represented by a better control and a more effective protection of the knee joint during stresses over physical effort.

Effects of Unstable and Stable Resistance Training on Strength, Power, andSensorimotor Abilities in Adolescent Surfers
By: Tai T. Tran, Sophia Nimphius, Lina Lundgren, Josh Secomb, Oliver R.L. Farley, G. Gregory Haff Robert U. Newton, Lee E. Brown and Jeremy M. Sheppard
Source : International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 10 · Number 5 · 2015
The purpose of this study was to investigate two different resistance training
interventions (unstable or stable) on strength, power, and sensorimotor abilities in adolescent surfers. Ten competitive female and male high school surfers were assessed before and after each of 2 x 7-week training intervention, using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Results for strength revealed no condition-by-time interaction or main effect for condition. However, there was a significant main effect for time, with significant strength gains post-training. There was a significant condition-by-time interaction for power exhibited as a significant decrease from pre- to post-training in the unstable condition, while the stable condition approached significant improvement. These results suggest that unstable and stable resistance training are both effective in developing strength in previously untrained competitive surfers, but with little effect on sensorimotor abilities. However, unstable training is inferior for the development of lower body power in this population.
The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokineticand Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance
By : Nicholas A. Ratamess , Noah A. Beller , Adam M. Gonzalez , Gregory E. Spatz , Jay R. Hoffman , Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum 1and Jie Kang
Source: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 34-40
The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorlyunderstood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigatethe magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistancetraining. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either anisokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m⋅s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric(ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.
Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of SuperimposedEMS on Physical Performance
Nicolas Wirtz , Christoph Zinner, Ulrike Doermann, Heinz Kleinoeder and Joachim Mester
Source :Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 26-33
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and
power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles.EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, counter  movement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Commons quat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed
EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl
muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic)
muscle groups.
Muscle Strength and Resistance Training
in Youth—Do They Affect Cardiovascular Health?
Bareket Falk
Pediatric Exercise Science, 2016, 28,11-15
Resistance training in youth has evolved tremendously over the past half-century. Initially, resistance training, often called ‘strength training’ or ‘weight training’, was thought to be ineffective or even futile for enhancing muscle strength in children (6). However, over the past several decades, its effectiveness in increasing muscle strength has been demonstrated repeatedly (6), as exemplified by numerous position statements specifically addressing this issue(e.g., 5,17,19,24). For many years, resistance training was also purported to delay growth in children (6). Regrettably, despite numerous scientific publications to the contrary (e.g., 10,18), this myth is still being propagated in the lay media. A scan of the current scientific literature demonstrates that resistance training is advocated as beneficial to young athletes (8) and for facilitating healthy development and motor-skill acquisition (4). Importantly, the health benefits of resistance training for numerous clinical conditions are increasingly being recognized. Resistance training has been specifically recommended for children with chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, leukemia, and obesity. In most of these conditions, the benefits of resistance training are realized through its direct effects on muscle strength or through its indirect effect on body composition (decrease in fat or increase in muscle mass). The 2 papers in this section (see below) are highlighted because they raise another potential benefit of muscle strength and resistance training. Namely, potential positive relationships between muscle strength, resistance training, and cardiovascular health. The latter is traditionally associated with aerobic fitness or aerobic training. Aberg et al.(1), in a prospective cohort study over a 42-year period, assessed the relationship between muscle strength in your hand stroke prevention in late adulthood. Horner et al. (13) examined the effect of resistance training on early signs of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in obese youth. Noteworthy is that both studies compared the effect of muscle strength or resistance training with those of aerobic fitness or aerobic training, respectively.
By Wilson, Luke Charles
Source : Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning 2015, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p87
This review aims to: i) outline the physical demands of baseball pitching at an elite level; ii) examine current training and rehabilitation methods for baseball pitching; and iii) provide recommendations to strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches working with these athletes. The literature was searched for the key words throwing, upper limb, force, programming and plyometrics, and 24 papers were included for analysis. The findings are intended for the baseball focused strength & conditioning professional as a framework for pre-and in-season programming. Through the review of original research it is apparent that pitching a baseball places a great amount of stress on the body, particularly the gleno-humeral joint. Training should focus on tolerating high loads in a strength-based loading paradigm, rather than an endurance based program. This review identified strength of the muscles of the scapula as the primary quality to develop, with rotator cuff strength being the accessory. This should then be supplemented with upper body plyometrics to develop power, due to the ballistic nature of the activity.
Strength & Conditioning : Principles for Track and Field Athlete

By :Cissik, John M
Source: Modern Athlete & Coach Jan2014, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p29


The article offers the author's view on strength, conditioning, and speed training for track and field athletes. He outlines five principles of using strength training for track and field athlete...
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Issue 6 2016

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